# PHP Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

For example:

\$num=10+20;//+ is the operator and 10,20 are operands

In the above example, + is the binary + operator, 10 and 20 are operands and \$num is variable.

PHP divides the operators in the following groups:

• Arithmetic Operators
• Assignment Operators
• Bitwise Operators
• Comparison Operators
• Incrementing/Decrementing Operators
• Logical Operators
• String Operators
• Array Operators
• Conditional assignment operators

We can also categorize operators on behalf of operands. They can be categorized in 3 forms:

• Unary Operators: works on single operands such as ++, — etc.
• Binary Operators: works on two operands such as binary +, -, *, / etc.
• Ternary Operators: works on three operands such as “?:”.

## PHP Arithmetic Operators

The PHP arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
Subtraction\$a – \$bDifference of operands
*Multiplication\$a * \$bProduct of operands
/Division\$a / \$bQuotient of operands
%Modulus\$a % \$bRemainder of operands
**Exponentiation\$a ** \$b\$a raised to the power \$b

## PHP Assignment Operators

The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.

The basic assignment operator in PHP is “=”. It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
=Assign\$a = \$bThe value of right operand is assigned to the left operand.
+=Add then Assign\$a += \$bAddition same as \$a = \$a + \$b
-=Subtract then Assign\$a -= \$bSubtraction same as \$a = \$a – \$b
*=Multiply then Assign\$a *= \$bMultiplication same as \$a = \$a * \$b
/=Divide then Assign
(quotient)
\$a /= \$bFind quotient same as \$a = \$a / \$b
%=Divide then Assign
(remainder)
\$a %= \$bFind remainder same as \$a = \$a % \$b

## PHP Bitwise Operators

The bitwise operators are used to perform bit-level operations on operands. These operators allow the evaluation and manipulation of specific bits within the integer.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
&And\$a & \$bBits that are 1 in both \$a and \$b are set to 1, otherwise 0.
|Or (Inclusive or)\$a | \$bBits that are 1 in either \$a or \$b are set to 1
^Xor (Exclusive or)\$a ^ \$bBits that are 1 in either \$a or \$b are set to 0.
~Not~\$aBits that are 1 set to 0 and bits that are 0 are set to 1
<<Shift left\$a << \$bLeft shift the bits of operand \$a \$b steps
>>Shift right\$a >> \$bRight shift the bits of \$a operand by \$b number of places

## PHP Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
==Equal\$a == \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is equal to \$b
===Identical\$a === \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is equal to \$b, and they are of same data type
!==Not identical\$a !== \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is not equal to \$b, and they are not of same data type
!=Not equal\$a != \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is not equal to \$b
<>Not equal\$a <> \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is not equal to \$b
<Less than\$a < \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is less than \$b
>Greater than\$a > \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is greater than \$b
<=Less than or equal to\$a <= \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is less than or equal \$b
>=Greater than or equal to\$a >= \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is greater than or equal \$b
<=>Spaceship\$a <=>\$bReturn -1 if \$a is less than \$b
Return 0 if \$a is equal \$b
Return 1 if \$a is greater than \$b

## PHP Increment / Decrement Operators

• The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable’s value.
• The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable’s value.
OperatorNameExampleExplanation
++Increment++\$aIncrement the value of \$a by one, then return \$a
\$a++Return \$a, then increment the value of \$a by one
decrement–\$aDecrement the value of \$a by one, then return \$a
\$a–Return \$a, then decrement the value of \$a by one

## PHP Logical Operators

The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
andAnd\$a and \$bReturn TRUE if both \$a and \$b are true
OrOr\$a or \$bReturn TRUE if either \$a or \$b is true
xorXor\$a xor \$bReturn TRUE if either \$ or \$b is true but not both
!Not! \$aReturn TRUE if \$a is not true
&&And\$a && \$bReturn TRUE if either \$a and \$b are true
||Or\$a || \$bReturn TRUE if either \$a or \$b is true

## PHP String Operators

PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
.Concatenation\$a . \$bConcatenate both \$a and \$b
.=Concatenation and Assignment\$a .= \$bFirst concatenate \$a and \$b, then assign the concatenated string to \$a, e.g. \$a = \$a . \$b

## PHP Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
+Union\$a + \$yUnion of \$a and \$b
==Equality\$a == \$bReturn TRUE if \$a and \$b have same key/value pair
!=Inequality\$a != \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is not equal to \$b
===Identity\$a === \$bReturn TRUE if \$a and \$b have same key/value pair of same type in same order
!==Non-Identity\$a !== \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is not identical to \$b
<>Inequality\$a <> \$bReturn TRUE if \$a is not equal to \$b

## PHP Conditional Assignment Operators

The PHP conditional assignment operators are used to set a value depending on conditions:

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
?:Ternary\$x = expr1 ? expr2 : expr3Returns the value of \$x.
The value of \$x is expr2 if expr1 = TRUE.
The value of \$x is expr3 if expr1 = FALSE
??Null coalescing\$x = expr1 ?? expr2Returns the value of \$x.
The value of \$x is expr1 if expr1 exists, and is not NULL.
If expr1 does not exist, or is NULL, the value of \$x is expr2.
Introduced in PHP 7

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