PHP Operators

Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.

For example:

$num=10+20;//+ is the operator and 10,20 are operands

In the above example, + is the binary + operator, 10 and 20 are operands and $num is variable.

PHP divides the operators in the following groups:

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Comparison Operators
  • Incrementing/Decrementing Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • String Operators
  • Array Operators
  • Conditional assignment operators

We can also categorize operators on behalf of operands. They can be categorized in 3 forms:

  • Unary Operators: works on single operands such as ++, — etc.
  • Binary Operators: works on two operands such as binary +, -, *, / etc.
  • Ternary Operators: works on three operands such as “?:”.

PHP Arithmetic Operators

The PHP arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
+Addition$a + $bSum of operands
Subtraction$a – $bDifference of operands
*Multiplication$a * $bProduct of operands
/Division$a / $bQuotient of operands
%Modulus$a % $bRemainder of operands
**Exponentiation$a ** $b$a raised to the power $b

PHP Assignment Operators

The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.

The basic assignment operator in PHP is “=”. It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
=Assign$a = $bThe value of right operand is assigned to the left operand.
+=Add then Assign$a += $bAddition same as $a = $a + $b
-=Subtract then Assign$a -= $bSubtraction same as $a = $a – $b
*=Multiply then Assign$a *= $bMultiplication same as $a = $a * $b
/=Divide then Assign
(quotient)
$a /= $bFind quotient same as $a = $a / $b
%=Divide then Assign
(remainder)
$a %= $bFind remainder same as $a = $a % $b

PHP Bitwise Operators

The bitwise operators are used to perform bit-level operations on operands. These operators allow the evaluation and manipulation of specific bits within the integer.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
&And$a & $bBits that are 1 in both $a and $b are set to 1, otherwise 0.
|Or (Inclusive or)$a | $bBits that are 1 in either $a or $b are set to 1
^Xor (Exclusive or)$a ^ $bBits that are 1 in either $a or $b are set to 0.
~Not~$aBits that are 1 set to 0 and bits that are 0 are set to 1
<<Shift left$a << $bLeft shift the bits of operand $a $b steps
>>Shift right$a >> $bRight shift the bits of $a operand by $b number of places

PHP Comparison Operators

The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
==Equal$a == $bReturn TRUE if $a is equal to $b
===Identical$a === $bReturn TRUE if $a is equal to $b, and they are of same data type
!==Not identical$a !== $bReturn TRUE if $a is not equal to $b, and they are not of same data type
!=Not equal$a != $bReturn TRUE if $a is not equal to $b
<>Not equal$a <> $bReturn TRUE if $a is not equal to $b
<Less than$a < $bReturn TRUE if $a is less than $b
>Greater than$a > $bReturn TRUE if $a is greater than $b
<=Less than or equal to$a <= $bReturn TRUE if $a is less than or equal $b
>=Greater than or equal to$a >= $bReturn TRUE if $a is greater than or equal $b
<=>Spaceship$a <=>$bReturn -1 if $a is less than $b
Return 0 if $a is equal $b
Return 1 if $a is greater than $b

PHP Increment / Decrement Operators

  • The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable’s value.
  • The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable’s value.
OperatorNameExampleExplanation
++Increment++$aIncrement the value of $a by one, then return $a
$a++Return $a, then increment the value of $a by one
decrement–$aDecrement the value of $a by one, then return $a
$a–Return $a, then decrement the value of $a by one

PHP Logical Operators

The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
andAnd$a and $bReturn TRUE if both $a and $b are true
OrOr$a or $bReturn TRUE if either $a or $b is true
xorXor$a xor $bReturn TRUE if either $ or $b is true but not both
!Not! $aReturn TRUE if $a is not true
&&And$a && $bReturn TRUE if either $a and $b are true
||Or$a || $bReturn TRUE if either $a or $b is true

PHP String Operators

PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
.Concatenation$a . $bConcatenate both $a and $b
.=Concatenation and Assignment$a .= $bFirst concatenate $a and $b, then assign the concatenated string to $a, e.g. $a = $a . $b

PHP Array Operators

The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
+Union$a + $yUnion of $a and $b
==Equality$a == $bReturn TRUE if $a and $b have same key/value pair
!=Inequality$a != $bReturn TRUE if $a is not equal to $b
===Identity$a === $bReturn TRUE if $a and $b have same key/value pair of same type in same order
!==Non-Identity$a !== $bReturn TRUE if $a is not identical to $b
<>Inequality$a <> $bReturn TRUE if $a is not equal to $b

PHP Conditional Assignment Operators

The PHP conditional assignment operators are used to set a value depending on conditions:

OperatorNameExampleExplanation
?:Ternary$x = expr1 ? expr2 : expr3Returns the value of $x.
The value of $x is expr2 if expr1 = TRUE.
The value of $x is expr3 if expr1 = FALSE
??Null coalescing$x = expr1 ?? expr2Returns the value of $x.
The value of $x is expr1 if expr1 exists, and is not NULL.
If expr1 does not exist, or is NULL, the value of $x is expr2.
Introduced in PHP 7

 

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Hello, I am Dharmendra Yadav and I am a Blogger, Web Developer, Web Designer, Search Engine Optimizer, Digital Marketing Instructor. You can find me on Facebook , Linkedin

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